Let's try to understand Polycystic ovarian syndrome, in a simple language. If we split the word Polycystic, in two parts, "Poly" and "Cystic". Poly means multiple / more /many AND Cystic means a cyst filled with water. When more than one cyst or undeveloped eggs are accumulated inside the ovary they look like Polycystic on the sonography. This is how the name polycystic ovaries got established.
Polycystic ovaries can be hereditary, just like, diabetes. Patients with diabetes are more prone to having polycystic ovaries and vice versa. Hence it is important to keep weight in control. To do regular exercise of at least 40 min a day. Low carbohydrate diet is essential. Carbohydrate increases insulin levels and PCOS patients have high insulin levels. These restrictions, of a diabetic patient, are also applicable to Polycystic ovary patients.
Treatment for Polycystic ovary are of two types. If a patient doesn't want to conceive then she is given contraceptive pills to regulate menstrual cycle. In some cases, few other problems are observed with irregular periods. Such as having pimples on the face or having extra hair growth, which is called hirsutism. These problems are caused by hormonal imbalance and it can be managed by medication. When the patient desires pregnancy, medicines to produce the eggs are given. Then from 10th day sonography is done. This is to examine whether oocyte/egg is being produced or not. Depending upon response, the dose of the medications may be changed. It is important for a patient to reduce weight and have optimum BMI. Weight reduction also reduces the chances of having diabetes and high blood pressure during pregnancy.